Mejar (B) Hj Yaakub & Family

Mejar (B) Hj Yaakub & Family
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STROKE AND DIABETES


STROKE

Symptoms and risks. A stroke happens when there is a sudden interruption of blood supply to part of the brain, leading to a loss of control of one or more body parts or functions. People with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have a stroke than people without diabetes.

There are three types of stroke; a thrombosis, in which a clot forms in a brain artery (45 per cent of cases); an embolism, in which a clot forms elsewhere in the circulation and travels in the bloodstream to lodge in the brain (35 per cent), or a hemorrhage, in which a ruptured blood vessel causes bleeding within or over the surface of the brain (20 per cent)

A so-called ‘mini-stroke’ can also occur, where symptoms fully resolve within 24 hours. Known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) , this kind of stroke is thought to happen when small clumps of blood platelets lodge within the brain to temporarily block the circulation to some brain cells. The platelet clots break up and clear before brain cells die from lack of oxygen, however, A TIA is an important warning sign that a stroke may occur in the future. If TIAs are treated (say,by taking a drug that lowers platelet stickiness), a full-blown stoke an often be prevented.

Natural treatments. A stoke can kill or disable, so prevention is very important. Some research suggests that people with a good intake of vitamin C are half as likely to suffer a stroke as those with an intake of less than 28mg of the vitamin a day. It may seem astonishing, but drinking a glass of orange or grapefruit juice every day may significantly reduce your risk of stroke by as much as 25 per cent.

The Stroke Association encourages people to eat five to six portions of fruit and vegetables a day, as this can reduce the risk of stroke by up to 30 per cent. Even if you don’t manage that much, increasing your usual intake by just one serving a day has been shown to lower the risk of a stroke by around 6 per cent( in people without diabetes). Tight glucose control remains vitally important, too, which may influence your choice of fruit and vegetables.

A number of nutritional supplements can help to reduce the risk of stroke, and are also beneficial if you have [previously experience a stroke. These include:
· Vitamin C
· B group vitamins.
Drugs and other treatments. Someone who has had a stroke may require varying amounts of support. Come people may be managed at home, while others need intensive care. In some cases specific treatment is needed, such as aspirin to reduce the formation of tiny platelet clots, or a clot-busting (thrombolytic) drug to dissolve a larger clot. Physiotherapy speech therapy and occupational therapy will help to restore lost movement, speech disturbance and help with rehabilitation.

CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND DIABETES


CORONARY HEART DISEASE

Symptoms and risks. If you have diabetes, you are 2 to 6 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than someone without diabetes. Coronary heart disease happens when your coronary arteries harden and fur up, starving the heart of oxygen-rich blood. This triggers pain known as angina, which is usually:
· Felt behind the chest bone
· Tight and crushing - like a bear hug
· Described as spreading through the chest and may radiate up into the neck, jaw or down the left arm
· Brought on by exertion
· Relieved by rest
If the heart muscle is continually starved of oxygen, some of its cells will die, triggering a heart attack. A heart attack feels something like angina, but lasts longer, is more intense, can come on at any time and is unrelieved by rest. It is usually accompanied by sweating, paleness and breathlessness.

Sudden chest pain should always be taken seriously and medical assistance sought without delay. It is important to know, however, that the perception of pain in the heart may not be as acute in people with diabetes, perhaps because of damage to the nerves supplying the heart. So if someone with diabetes develops malaise, sweats, experiences shortness of breath and feels faint, a heart attach should always be suspected, even if they do not have chest pain. Be aware that these symptoms are similar to those of a hypoglycemic attack, so if it is a heart attack, the diagnosis may be delayed as a result.

Coronary heart disease is particularly common in people with type 2 diabetes. The risk of developing heart problems is higher if, in addition to diabetes, you have high blood pressure, abnormally raised cholesterol levels and a raised homocysteine level and smoke, are overweight and take little exercise.
People with diabetes are also more likely to develop heart muscle problem known as cardiomyopathy, in which the chambers of the heart do to contract to pump blood as efficiently as normal. Eventually this condition can lead to heart failure.

Natural treatments. Strict control of blood glucose levels is vitally important for someone who has diabetes and coronary heart disease.
A number of nutritional supplements can also help atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. These include:
· Vitamin C
· Vitamin E
· Co-enzyme Q10
· Tea (green, black, white or oolong)
· Selenium
· B group vitamins
· Chromium
· Copper
· Magnesium
· Garlic
· Omega 3 Fish Oil
· Evening primrose oil
Drugs and other treatments. Among the drugs used to treat coronary heart disease are aspirin (which reduces blood clotting) beta-blockers, (which slow heart rate to reduce heart work load), ACE inhibitors (which have several actions that reduce the work-load of the heart) and statins (which lower cholesterol levels). If you have type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease, be aware that if you’re not already using insulin you may be switched to it.

NERVE PROBLEM OF DIABETES


NERVE PROBLEM

Symptoms and risks Diabetes can damage the fatty myclin sheath surrounding your nerve fibres, which in turn slow down your nerve signals. This is known as diabetic neuropathy, and often starts with burning or stinging sensations in areas supplied by affected nerves. As a result, you may find it harder to sense vibration, pain or extremes of temperature – especially in your feet. Risk arises when a cut or blister goes unnoticed a small injury may become ulcerated and infection may set in, exacerbated by poor circulation and raised glucose levels. A related symptom is restless legs – in which there is an unpleasant creeping sensation in the lower limbs, accompanied by twitching, pins and needles, burning sensations or pain plus an irresistible urge to move the legs.

Neuropathy can also cause weakness or wasting of your muscles and deformities such as ‘hammer’ toes (where a toe assumes a claw-like position, a condition that can lead to ulceration), and can contribute to impotence in men.

Natural treatments. Research involving people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes has shown that good long-term control of blood glucose levels can reduce the risk of developing diabetic neuropathy. But if you have it, you will want relied, as it can be a maddeningly painful condition. Treatment with simple painkillers such as aspirin, paracetamol of codeine phosphate is usually unhelpful, but some people find relief with a cream containing extract of chili pepper (capsaicin) which reduces the signals sent from pain nerve fibers in the treated area. You can obtain this on prescription from your doctor. Bed cradles to lift bed clothiers off the feet may also help.

Leg cramping, an occasional side effect of neuropathy, can sometimes be helped via magnetic therapy, which improves blood flow to affected areas, and boosts oxygenation. An alternative treatment worth considering for restless legs is co-enzyme Q10.
A number of nutritional supplements can help to improve diabetic neuropathy. These include:
· ALA
· B group vitamins, including biotin
· Evening primrose oil.

Drugs and other treatments. Antidepressants, which affect levels of certain chemicals in the brain, often help to reduce pain perception, especially burning sensations. Shooting pains, often described as like electric shocks, may be reduced by anticonvulsant drugs such as carbamazepine or phenytoin.

Restless legs may be helped by the benzodiazepine drug, clonazepam. Cramping in the leg muscles may be helped by quinine sulphate tablets.

EYE DISEASE OR RETINOPATHY & DIABETES


Eye Disease or Retinopathy & Diabetes

Symptoms and risks. Regular eye examinations are essential when you have diabetes, as the condition can affect your vision in a number of ways. High blood glucose levels affect the water balance of your lens – transparent structure at the front of the eye that focuses light. This can cause blurred vision, and also accelerates the formation of cataracts, which develop 10 to 15 years earlier than average in people with diabetes Damage to the blood vessels un your retina can harm your vision or even cause blindness if it affects the macula ( the part of the retina responsible for fine vision ) or if it is associated with the growth of new blood vessels, which also increases the risk of glaucoma. Raised fluid pressure in the eye. The nerves that control your eye movements can also be damaged by high blood glucose levels.

The retina of your eye is the one area in your body where small blood vessels can be viewed directly. When a specialist examines the back of your eye, using an instrument known as an ophthalmoscope, they look for a number of changes in these small vessels. If they reveal any damage, it is safe to say that small blood vessels throughout your body, including the kidneys and brain, will also have sustained similar damage.

These changes include thickening; small ‘blow-outs’ known as micro aneurysms; leaks of protein-rich fluid through the vessels into surrounding tissues; white areas called ‘cotton –wool spots’ caused by the raising of underlying nerve fibre layer because of a lack of oxygen; and micro-hemorrhages that produce shapes resembling flames, dots or blots. The blood vessels may resemble a string of beads, form loops or show abnormal branching, or may overgrow to produce new branching in an attempt to improve oxygen delivery to the retina. These new blood vessels lie over the retinal blood vessels and can rupture when the fluid of the eye – the vitreous gel – contracts. In advanced cases, the retina can tear or detach and glaucoma can develop, while damage to the optic nerve and the macula can all lead to loss of vision.

This condition, known as diabetic retinopathy, is one of the leading causes of blandness in the Western world. If you have diabetes you need to be aware that eye complications are extremely common after you have had the condition for more than 20 years.

Natural treatments here, prevention is vital, and good control of both glucose levels and blood pressure can help stave off eye and other complications. Laser therapy can treat some complications in the eyes, such as the overgrowth of new blood vessels, macular damage and potential detachment of the retina.

You can also take a number of supplements to help protect your eyes. These include:
· Vitamin C
· Vitamin E
· Carotenoids such as lutein
· Pycnogenol(R) ( a powerful antioxidant derived from maritime pine bark)
· B group vitamins
· Bilberry
· Ginkgo
Drugs and other treatments: Interestingly, even if you have diabetes and normal blood pressure, treatment with an anti-hypertensive drug ( an ACE-inhibitor such as lisinopril) can still markedly reduce your risk of developing retinopathy.





HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE OR HYPERTENSION AND DIABETES


HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND DIABETES.

Symptoms and risks. If you have diabetes, you are twice as likely to develop high blood pressure as someone without diabetes. Between 10 and 30 per cent of people with type 1 diabetes and 30 to 60 per cent of people with type 2 have high blood pressure.

Diabetic nephropathy is thought to contribute to the problem because when excess fluid and salts from the body are not filtered out, they build up in the circulation, and this will raise blood pressure. Kidney disease may also boost secretion of the hormone renin, which is problematic, as it is involved in regulating blood pressure.

In type 1 diabetes, blood pressure usually starts to rise when protein is detectable in the urine, while in type2 high blood pressure is more closely linked to insulin resistance, obesity and the development of abnormal blood fat levels.

In combination, diabetes and high blood pressure have a very damaging effect on your circulation, and are a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease. Having both also increases the risk of small blood vessel complications. In the UK Prospective Diabetes Study of 1998, 1148 people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension were either put on strictly controlled regimens for lowering blood pressure ( so their average blood pressure over nine years was 144/82 mmHg) or less strictly controlled ones (so their average blood pressure over nine years was 158/87 mmHg) Those with the stricter regime were 44 per cent likely to have a stroke and 37 per cent less likely to develop diabetic eye disease and kidney problems.

Natural treatments. If you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, it is vital to make necessary diet and lifestyle changes. If you smoke, you need to stop, if you’re overweight, you will need to lose the excess, and if your are too liberal with salt and alcohol, you will have to cut your consumption of both. Both increasing your activity levels and learning relaxation techniques, are also crucial when tackling hypertension. It’s so important to control blood pressure when you have diabetes that some recommend keeping your blood pressure consistently lower that 130/80 mmHg if your kidney function is normal, or less than 125/75 mmHg when there is more than 1g protein per 24 hours in the urine. To achieve these targets, it’s usually necessary to take more than one antihypertensive drug.

A number of nutritional supplements can help to reduce high blood pressure. These include:

· Co-enzyme Q10

· Potassium

· Antioxidants

· Magnesium

· Garlic

· Omega-3 fish oils

Ref:

Dr Sarah Brewer (2005) Natural Approaches to DIABETES. Piatkus Books Ltd, 5, Windmill Street, London, UK.

Website: www.piatkus.co.uk





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TOBACCO AND CANCER THAT KILL!!!


Tobacco and Cancer
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Smoking damages nearly every organ in the human body, is linked to at least 15 different cancers, and accounts for some 30% of all cancer deaths. And it costs billions of dollars each year. Yet one in five Americans still light up. If you or someone you love uses tobacco, here's what you need to know about how tobacco kills, and how to get the help you need to quit.

What's So Bad About Tobacco?
Get the facts about what cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco do to your body, your wallet, and the health of those around you.

Kick the Habit
Quitting smoking is one of the best things you can do for yourself and your loved ones. To kick the habit for good, you need motivation, dependable support, and sound strategies. We've got you covered with all three!

Health Professionals
Help your patients succeed at cessation. Find quitting resources and get expert tips for discussing quitting.

Great American Smokeout
This nationwide event takes place the third Thursday of November each year to encourage smokers to quit for at least one day, in hopes they will quit forever. Get more information on events in your area.

Local Smokeout Resources
Smoke-free Communities
What are your lawmakers doing to lessen the impact of tobacco in your community? Your employer? Learn about your state's tobacco laws and how you can join the fight for cleaner air at work and in public spaces across the U.S.

ACS News Center
Get the latest tobacco news here.

Help About ACS Employment & Volunteer Opportunities Legal & Privacy Information Press RoomCopyright 2010 © American Cancer Society, Inc.All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted by the American Cancer Society, Inc. All rights reserved.

CIGARETTE SMOKING KILLS YOU AND YOUR FAMILY SLOWLY


Cigarette Smoking



The 1982 United States Surgeon General's report stated that"Cigarette smoking is the major single cause of cancer mortality in the United States." This statement is as true today as it was then.



Tobacco use is responsible for nearly 1 in 5 deaths in the United States. Because cigarette smoking and tobacco use are acquired behaviors -- activities that people choose to do -- smoking is the most preventable cause of death in our society.



Here is a brief overview of cigarette smoking: who smokes, how smoking affects health, what makes it so hard to quit, and what some of the many rewards of quitting are. For more on this topic, see our Guide to Quitting Smoking.

Who smokes?

Adults

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 46 million U.S. adults were current smokers in 2008 (the most recent year for which numbers are available). This is 20.6% of all adults (23.1% of men, 18.3% of women) -- about 1 out of 5 people.

When broken down by race/ethnicity, the numbers were as follows:

Whites

22.0%

African Americans

21.3%



Hispanics



15.8%



American Indians/Alaska Natives



32.4%

Asian Americans

9.9%

There were more cigarette smokers in the younger age groups. In 2008, the CDC reported almost 23.7% of those 25 to 44 years old were current smokers, compared with 9.3% of those aged 65 or older.

High school and middle school students

Nationwide, 20% of high school students were smoking cigarettes in 2007. The most recent survey of middle school students shows that about 6% were smoking cigarettes. In both high schools and middle schools, white and Hispanic students were more likely to smoke cigarettes than other races/ethnicities. (For more information, see our document, Child and Teen Tobacco Use.)

How does smoking cause illness and death?

About half of all Americans who keep smoking will die because of the habit. Each year about 443,600 people in the United States die from illnesses related to tobacco use. Smoking cigarettes kills more Americans than alcohol, car accidents, suicide, AIDS, homicide, and illegal drugs combined.

Cancer caused by smoking

Cigarette smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths. It is linked with an increased risk of the following cancers:

lung

larynx (voice box)

oral cavity (mouth, tongue, and lips)

pharynx (throat)

esophagus (tube connecting the throat to the stomach)

stomach

pancreas

cervix

kidney

bladder

acute myeloid leukemia

Smoking is responsible for almost 9 out of 10 lung cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women, and is one of the hardest cancers to treat. Lung cancer is a disease that can often be prevented. Some religious groups that promote non-smoking as part of their religion, such as Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists, have much lower rates of lung cancer and other smoking-related cancers.

Other health problems caused by smoking

As serious as cancer is, it accounts for less than half of the deaths related to smoking each year. Smoking is a major cause of heart disease, aneurysms, bronchitis, emphysema, and stroke.

Using tobacco can damage a woman's reproductive health and hurt babies. Tobacco use is linked with reduced fertility and a higher risk of miscarriage, early delivery (premature birth), and stillbirth. It is also a cause of low birth-weight in infants. It has been linked to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), too.

Smoking can make pneumonia and asthma worse. It has been linked to other health problems, too, including gum disease, cataracts, bone thinning, hip fractures, and peptic ulcers. Some studies have also linked smoking to macular degeneration, an eye disease that can cause blindness.

Smoking can cause or worsen poor blood flow in the arms and legs (peripheral vascular disease or PVD.) Surgery to improve the blood flow often doesn't work in people who keep smoking. Because of this, many surgeons who work on blood vessels (vascular surgeons) won't do certain surgeries on patients with PVD unless they stop smoking.

Some studies have found that male smokers may be more likely to be sexually impotent (have erectile dysfunction).

The smoke from cigarettes (called secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke) can also have harmful health effects on those exposed to it. Adults and children can have health problems from breathing secondhand smoke. (See our documents, Secondhand Smoke and Women and Smoking.)

Effects of smoking on how long you live and your quality of life

Based on data collected from 1995 to 1999, the CDC estimated that adult male smokers lost an average of 13.2 years of life and female smokers lost 14.5 years of life because of smoking.

But not all of the health problems related to smoking result in deaths. Smoking affects a smoker's health in many ways, harming nearly every organ of the body and causing diseases. According to the CDC, in 2000 about 8.6 million people had at least one chronic disease because they smoked or had smoked. Many of these people were suffering from more than one smoking-related problem. The diseases seen most often were chronic bronchitis, emphysema, heart attacks, strokes, and cancer. These diseases can steal away a person's quality of life long before death. Smoking-related illness can limit a person's daily life by making it harder to breathe, get around, work, or play.

Taking care of yourself

If you have used tobacco in any form, now or in the past, tell your health care provider so he or she can be sure that you have right preventive health care. It is well known that smoking puts you at risk for certain health problems. This means part of your health care should focus on related screening and preventive measures to help you stay as healthy as possible.

For example, your doctor may recommend that you check the inside of your mouth regularly for any changes. If you do find any changes or problems, you should have an oral exam done by your doctor or dentist. The American Cancer Society recommends that medical check-ups should include mouth (oral cavity) exams. By doing this, tobacco users may be able to find changes such as leukoplakia (white patches on the membranes in the mouth) early. This may help prevent oral cancer.

You should also be aware of any of the following:

any change in a cough (for example, you cough up more phlegm or mucus than usual)

a new cough

coughing up blood

hoarseness

trouble breathing

wheezing

chest pain

loss of appetite

weight loss

feeling tired all the time (fatigue)

frequent lung or respiratory infections (like pneumonia or bronchitis)

Any of these could be signs of problems with the lungs or other parts of the respiratory system and should be reported to a doctor right away.

Smokers are at higher risk for lung cancer. But lung cancer often doesn't cause symptoms until it is advanced (has spread), and at this time there are no widely recommended screening tests for this cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends that people who are at increased risk for lung cancer, such as smokers, former smokers, or people who have been exposed to secondhand smoke, be aware of their lung cancer risk. If you are in this group, talk with your doctor about your likelihood of developing lung cancer and about the potential benefits and risks of lung cancer screening. After discussing what is and is not known about the value of early lung cancer detection, if you and your doctor decide in favor of testing, then be sure to have it done at a center that has experience in all aspects of testing people at high risk.

If you have any health concerns that you think may be caused by your cigarette smoking, please see a health care provider right away. Taking care of yourself and getting treatment for problems before they get worse will improve your chances for successful treatment. Still, the best way to take care of yourself and decrease your risk for life-threatening lung problems is to quit smoking.

What is in tobacco?

Cigarettes, cigars, and spit and pipe tobacco are made from dried tobacco leaves, as well as ingredients added for flavor and other reasons. More than 4,000 different chemicals have been found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Among these are more than 60 chemicals that are known to cause cancer (carcinogens).

Many substances are added to cigarettes by manufacturers to enhance the flavor or to make smoking more pleasant. Some of the compounds found in tobacco smoke include ammonia, tar, and carbon monoxide. Exactly what effects these substances have on the cigarette smoker's health is unknown, but there is no evidence that lowering the tar content of a cigarette lowers the health risk.

As of now, cigarette manufacturers are not required to give out information to the public about the additives used in cigarettes, which has made it harder to determine their possible health risks. But with the passage of a new federal law, manufacturers must submit lists of ingredients to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) starting in 2010. The FDA will make lists of harmful ingredients available to the public by or before June 2013.

Nicotine addiction



Addiction is marked by the repeated, compulsive seeking or use of a substance despite its harmful effects and unwanted consequences. Addiction is defined as physical and psychological (mental and emotional) dependence on the substance. Nicotine is the addictive drug in tobacco. Regular use of tobacco products leads to addiction in many users.

In 1988, the U.S. Surgeon General concluded the following:

Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco are addicting.

Nicotine is the addicting drug in tobacco.

The ways people become addicted to tobacco are much like those that lead to addiction to other drugs such as heroin and cocaine.

These statements are as true today as they were then. All forms of tobacco have a lot of nicotine. It is easily absorbed through the lungs with smoking and through the mouth or nose with oral tobacco (spit, snuff, or smokeless tobacco). From these entry points, nicotine quickly spreads throughout the body.

Tobacco companies are required by law to report nicotine levels in cigarettes to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). But in most states they are not required to show the amount of nicotine on the cigarette package label. The actual amount of nicotine available to the smoker in a given brand of cigarettes is often different from the level reported to the FTC. In one regular cigarette, the average amount of nicotine the smoker gets ranges between about 1 mg and 2 mg. But the cigarette itself contains more nicotine than this. The amount people actually take in depends on how they smoke, how many puffs they take, how deeply they inhale, and other factors.

How powerful is nicotine addiction?

About 70% of smokers say they want to quit and about 40% try to quit each year, but only 4% to 7% succeed without help. This is because smokers not only become physically addicted to nicotine; there is a strong emotional (psychological) aspect and they often link smoking with many social activities. All of these factors make smoking a hard habit to break.

Why quit smoking?

Nicotine is a very addictive drug. People usually try to quit many times before they are successful. But the struggle can be worth the effort. In September 1990, the U.S. Surgeon General outlined what you gain when you quit smoking:

Quitting smoking has major health benefits that start right away. This is true for people who already have a smoking-related disease as well as those who don't.

Former smokers live longer than people who keep smoking. For example, people who quit smoking before age 50 have one-half the risk of dying in the next 15 years compared with people who keep smoking.

Quitting smoking lowers the risk of lung cancer, other cancers, heart attack, stroke, and chronic lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

Women who stop smoking before they get pregnant, or even during the first 3 to 4 months of pregnancy, reduce their risk of having a low birth-weight baby to that of women who never smoked.

The health benefits of quitting smoking are far greater than any risks from the weight gain or any emotional or psychological problems that may follow quitting.

Your risk of having lung cancer and other smoking-related cancers depends on how much you have been exposed to cigarette smoke over your lifetime. This is measured by the number of cigarettes you smoked each day, how you smoked them, how young you were when you started smoking, and the number of years you have smoked. There is no way to precisely measure a person's risk of getting cancer, but the more you smoke and the longer you do it, the greater your risk.

The good news is that the risk of having lung cancer and other smoking-related illnesses can be reduced if you stop smoking. The risk of lung cancer is less in people who quit smoking than in people who keep smoking the same number of cigarettes every day. The risk decreases as the number of years since quitting increases.

People who stop smoking while they are young get the greatest health benefits from quitting. Those who quit in their 30s may avoid most of the risk due to tobacco use. But even smokers who quit after age 50 largely reduce their risk of dying early. The argument that it is too late to quit smoking because the damage is already done is not true. It is never too late to quit smoking!

For more information, see our Guide to Quitting Smoking.

Additional resources

More information from your American Cancer Society

The following information may also be helpful to you. These materials may be ordered from our toll-free number, 1-800-227-2345.

Guide to Quitting Smoking (also available in Spanish)

Double Your Chances of Quitting Smoking

Quitting Smoking -- Help for Cravings and Tough Situations (also available in Spanish)

Helping a Smoker Quit: Do's and Don'ts

Questions About Smoking, Tobacco, and Health (also available in Spanish)

Women and Smoking (also available in Spanish)

Secondhand Smoke (also available in Spanish)

Cigar Smoking (also available in Spanish)

Child and Teen Tobacco Use (also available in Spanish)

National organizations and Web sites*

Along with the American Cancer Society, other sources of information and support include:

American Heart Association & American Stroke AssociationToll-free number: 1-800-242-8721 (1-800-AHA-USA-1) Web site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=American%20Heart%20Association&url=http://www.americanheart.orgToll-free number: 1-888-478-7653 (1-888-4-STROKE) Web site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=American%20Stroke%20Association&url=http://www.strokeassociation.orgQuitting tips and advice can be found at everydaychoices.org or by calling 1-866-399-6789

American Lung AssociationToll-free number: 1-800-548-8252 Web site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=American%20Lung%20Association&url=http://www.lungusa.orgPrinted quit materials are available, some in Spanish. Also offers the tobacco cessation program "Freedom from Smoking Online" at www.ffsonline.org

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Office of Smoking and Health Toll-free number: 1-800-232-4636 (1-800-CDC-INFO) Web site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=Centers%20for%20Disease%20Control%20and%20Prevention&url=http://www.cdc.gov/tobaccoFree quit support line: 1-800-784-8669 (1-800-QUIT-NOW) TTY: 1-800-332-8615

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Telephone: 202-272-0167 Web site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=Environmental%20Protection%20Agency&url=http://www.epa.govHas advice on how to protect children from secondhand smoke, a Smoke-free Homes Pledge, and other tobacco-related materials on the direct Web site, http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=Environmental%20Protection%20Agency&url=http://www.epa.gov/smokefree, or at 1-866-766-5337 (1-866-SMOKE-FREE)

National Cancer InstituteToll-free number: 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-CANCER) Web site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=National%20Cancer%20Institute&url=http://www.cancer.govToll-free tobacco line: 1-877-448-7848 Tobacco quit line: 1-800-784-8669 (1-800-QUITNOW) Direct tobacco Web site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=www.smokefree.gov&url=http://www.smokefree.govQuitting information, cessation guide, and counseling is offered, as well as information on state telephone-based quit programs

Nicotine AnonymousToll-free number: 1-877-879-6422 (1-877-TRY-NICA) Web site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=Nicotine%20Anonymous&url=http://www.nicotine-anonymous.orgFor free information, meeting schedules, printed materials, or information on how to start a group in your area

QuitNetWeb site: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ipg.asp?sitename=QuitNet&url=http://www.quitnet.comOffers free, cutting edge, effective tobacco cessation services to people worldwide

*Inclusion on this list does not imply endorsement by the American Cancer Society.

No matter who you are, we can help. Contact us anytime, day or night, for information and support. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or visit http://www.cancer.org/.

References

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta, Ga. 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs --- United States, 1995--1999. 2002;51(14);300–303. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5114a2.htm on September 17, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette smoking among adults --- United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2008;57(45):1221-1226. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5745a2.htm on September 16, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette Smoking Among Adults and Trends in Smoking Cessation --- United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2009;58(44):1227-1232. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5844a2.htm on November 24, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses, United States, 2000--2004. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2008;57(45):1226-1228. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5745a3.htm on September 18, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette smoking-attributable morbidity - United States, 2000. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2003;52(35):842-844. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5235a4.htm on September 17, 2009.



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking and Tobacco Use: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2006 NYTS Data and Documentation. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/tobacco/Data_statistics/surveys/nyts/index.htm on September 16, 2009.



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance --- United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57(SS-04);1-31. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5704a1.htm on September 16, 2009.



Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ. 2004;328:1519–1528.



Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. Clinical practice guideline. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service 2008. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco/treating_tobacco_use08.pdf on September 17, 2009.



Food and Drug Administration. Frequently Asked Questions on the Passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA). 2009. Accessed at www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/NewsEvents/ucm173174.htm on September 17, 2009.

Gades NM, Nehra A, Jacobson DJ, et al. Association between smoking and erectile dysfunction: a population-based study. m J Epidemiol. 2005;161:346–351.

National Cancer Institute (NCI). Cigarette Smoking and Cancer: Questions and Answers. 2004. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/cancer on September 18, 2009.

Office of the U.S. Surgeon General. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office on Smoking and Health. 1990. Accessed at http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/C/T on September 18, 2009.

Office of the U.S. Surgeon General. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2006. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/ on September 17, 2009.

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Office of the U.S. Surgeon General. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction: A Report of the Surgeon General. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office on Smoking and Health. 1988. Accessed at http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/Z/D/ on September 17, 2009.

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Last Medical Review: 10/01/2009Last Revised: 11/24/2009

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Friday, 10 December 2010

HJ ISMAIL,HJH SAFIAH, HJ SUHAINI DAN SITI LAUYAH@SITI ALIYAH

No. 61, Countryside Road,  Off Yio Chu Kang Road, Singa pore 789816 Residence of Cikgu Hj Ismail. Tel: +65-9755235

OFF TO SINGAPORE TO REMOVE STRESS!!!

It was a comfortable flight with friendly hostesses. But lunch provided was not satisfactory as it contained junk-food style food though called nasi lemak which we loothed very much. Please change to a more professional dish containing real nutrition for good health.
Baharu sampai di Terminal 2, Changi Airport by RBA  BI421 On 5 Dec, 2010 at 1220 hours

Saturday, 22 May 2010

HOTELS IN MALAYSIA

STAY IN THIS HOTEL FOR COMFORT, SAFETY AND EASY ACCESS TO SHOPPING MALLS

Pengiran Abdullah & Suhaini Berihat Sebentar

Pengiran Abdullah & Suhaini Berihat Sebentar
Sambil Menunggu Hidangan Makanan Tengah Hari d Restoran Centre Point

Pg Jamilah & Pg Aishah Ipar Beripar

Pg Jamilah & Pg Aishah Ipar Beripar
Makan Bersama d Centre Point, Kota Kinabalu

Pg Abdullah Bersama Pak Rashid

Pg Abdullah Bersama Pak Rashid
Makan Angin di Centre Point Sebelum Berlepas Ke Airport

Rombongan Brunei Bersama Sanak Saudara

Rombongan Brunei Bersama Sanak Saudara
Lepas Makan d Restoran Centre Point, Jalan Tun Fuad Stephens, KK

Bergambar Ramai Dengan Dua Mempelai

Bergambar Ramai Dengan Dua Mempelai
Rombongan Dari Brunei di Kota Belud 6hb June, 2010

Kenderaan Perisai Bagi Mengerak Pengantin

Kenderaan Perisai Bagi Mengerak Pengantin
Fenomena Yang Terdapat Dalam Kebudayaan Kota Belud 6hb June, 2010

Pg Rahim, Pg Abdullah & Keluarga Bersama Pengantin

Pg Rahim, Pg Abdullah & Keluarga Bersama Pengantin
Takidum Santul Dangan Begambar Ani

Dua Mempelai Bersama Sanak Saudara

Dua Mempelai Bersama Sanak Saudara
Senyumlah Sedikit Dong! Jangan Marong

Pak Rashid Membedaki Pengantin

Pak Rashid Membedaki Pengantin
Kedua Mempelai Bersanding d Kota Belud

Balai Penghadapan d Kota Belud

Balai Penghadapan d Kota Belud
Pelamin Zaman Keratu Yang Sangat Antique

Traditional Style of Pelamin d Kota Belud

Traditional Style of Pelamin d Kota Belud
Kecil Besar Tua Dan Muda Menyaksikan Kedua Mempelai

Bapa & Ibu Pengantin Bersama Anaknya

Bapa & Ibu Pengantin Bersama Anaknya
Raja Sehari Bersanding di Kota Belud 6hb June, 2010

Pernikahan Anak Pg Rahim 5hb June, 2010

Pernikahan Anak Pg Rahim 5hb June, 2010
Jemputan Sanak Saudara Duduk Menyaksikan

Airport Kota Kinabalu

Airport Kota Kinabalu
Menghantar Sanak Saudara Belayar

PENGANTIN BERSANDING DI KOTA BELUD. KOTA KINABALU

PENGANTIN BERSANDING DI KOTA BELUD. KOTA KINABALU
RAJA SEHARI

MAJLIS BERPACAR DI KOTA BELUD, KOTA KINABALU

MAJLIS BERPACAR DI KOTA BELUD, KOTA KINABALU
Pengantin Sedang Dipacari

Waridi And Family Members

Waridi And Family Members
Waridi Sits On a Throne On His Wedding Day.

Siti Lauyah@Siti 'Aliyah Kadir

Siti Lauyah@Siti 'Aliyah Kadir
Singpore Scenerio